Modern wars are driving the development of stealth technology, anti-radiation missiles (ARM), electronic countermeasures (ECM), and low-altitude penetration. These are presenting new challenges and higher requirements for the modern radar. Since it is difficult for the conventional radar to deal with new challenges, a series of advanced technologies have been employed to develop a new radar system. Especially, the meter-wave radar has significant advantages for anti-stealth.
The synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) is a new kind of meter-wave distributed radar with capability and performance of anti-stealth, low probability of interception, ARM, anti-interference, four-dimensional parameter estimate and high accuracy. The SIAR provides an effective approach to detect and track stealth aircrafts and other low-altitude targets for early warning and guidance. The SIAR has overcome the disadvantage of low resolution in the meter-wave radar by adopting a sparse separated antenna. Each transmitting antenna is omnidirectional and radiates an orthogonal frequency-coding signal, so that the entire space can be symmetrically covered. The transmitting beam and receiving beam is formed at the receiving station via signal processing. The SIAR has many differences from the conventional radar for the special system and operation mode, which rises some new problems. The SIAR is a novel multifrequency multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar.
This book provides a systematic description of the working principle, signal processing procedures, target measurement techniques, and experimental results of the SIAR in compliance with engineering practice. In addition, the synthetic impulse and aperture can also be applied in the radar of the high-frequency (HF) band and the microwave band. The coast–ship bistatic HF surface wave SIAR experimental system and the microwave sparse-array SIAR have also been described.
The book contains eleven chapters and is organized as follows. Chapter 1 by Baixiao Chen and Jianqi Wu gives an introduction to the SIAR, including the basic character and the capability of anti-stealth, anti-ARM, and anti-interference. Chapter 2 by Baixiao Chen and Wei Zhu gives the common radar waveform, including the FM pulse signal, phase coded signal, stepped-frequency pulse signal, and orthogonal waveforms. The mathematical form of the radar signal, the ambiguity function, and the corresponding processing methods are emphasized. Chapter 3 by Jianqi Wu, Baixiao Chen, and Kai Jiang is used as the basis for the following chapters. It presents the operating principle and system structure of the SIAR. Chapter 4 by Baixiao Chen and Jianqi Wu describes the waveforms of SIAR and the corresponding signal processing procedures. Chapters 5 to 9 are written by Baixiao Chen. In Chapter 5, long-time coherent integration techniques of the SIAR are discussed. According to the features and open questions of long-time coherent integration, two kinds of long-time coherent integration algorithm are proposed. One is based on motion compensation and time-frequency analysis; the other is based on stepped-frequency impulse synthesis. Detailed derivations of digital mono-pulse tracking, used for precision measurement of the target (including distance, azimuth, elevation, and Doppler frequency 4D parameters with the transmitting aperture and receiving aperture simultaneously), is presented in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 is dedicated to describing coupling between the range and angle in the SIAR. The influence of coupling and the method of decoupling is analyzed. In order to overcome the coupling effect among range, azimuth, and elevation, an optimized frequency-coding criterion of the transmitting signals is studied. Chapter 8 treats the detection and tracking of the target under a background of strong interference. The adaptive interference nulling techniques constitute the main topic. Also, the effects of the aperture–bandwidth product, gain-phase errors, and quantizing noise in the analog/digital (A/D) converter to a large circular-aperture SIAR are quantitatively analyzed. Chapter 9 deals with the impact on tracking accuracy of the SIAR caused by array perturbation, including gain-phase errors, channel mismatch, and unbalance among orthogonal channels. Chapter 10 by Baixiao Chen and Duofang Chen contains the bistatic surface-wave synthetic impulse and aperture radar (BSW-SIAR) experimental system. This includes the operating principle and experimental results of this over-the-horizon (OTH) radar. The microwave sparse array synthetic impulse and aperture radar is demonstrated in detail in Chapter 11 by Baixiao Chen and Minglei Yang.
In fact, the SIAR is a typical kind of MIMO radar. The MIMO radar also uses the concept of SIAR. Researchers at Oxford University gave the following appraisement: “MIMO radar is inspired mainly by the synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) .…” The presenters of the “statistical MIMO radar” in the Research Institute of the State University of New Jersey and Bell Labs described it as follows: “Recently, a new and interesting concept in array radar has been introduced by the synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) . . . .” Therefore, publication of this book should play a positive role in the promotion for the research of the MIMO radar.
The intention of this book is to make readers systematically, comprehensively, deeply understand the basic concept, working principles, operation mode, and signal processing procedures of the SIAR, and the differences from conventional radars. The design thoughts, development methods, and some special considerations of the SIAR are also included.
The author has been working on system design and signal processing of radar in the past 20 years with professional theories and much engineering experience. More than 80 papers about the SIAR have been published. This book is a summary of 20 years of research on the SIAR. It is hoped that this book will be a useful reference for working engineers as well as a textbook for students learning about the SIAR, MIMO systems, and digital radars analysis and design. We give many MATLAB codes in this book for the reader to better understand the SIAR and MIMO radar.
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