The burgeoning popularity of space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is easily demonstrated with a quick keyword search. Although originally coined for airborne multichannel moving target indicator (MTI) radar, the acronym has been adopted in many disciplines in which joint adaptive sensor temporal and spatial processing are performed (e.g., multidimensional adaptive filtering). Although a widely published topic, there is a void in coverage at the introductory to intermediate level—a niche which this book is designed to address.
Multichannel space-time array processing is an extremely rich topic area in and of itself. When coupled with the modern marvel of a radar system, it is doubtful that any single source could come close to providing comprehensive coverage. In selecting both the scope and treatment for this book, I had the benefit of having taught both introductory and advanced courses on STAP for radar for several years in industry, academia, and the IEEE Radar Conference series. The audience for such courses is extremely diverse, ranging from pure theoretical academicians to the working engineer trying to implement STAP on time and on budget (and most occupation categories in between). Moreover, such forums were generally quite time constrained, placing a premium on efficient teaching methods.
Introduction to Space-Time Adaptive Processing for Radar is my attempt to distill the many lessons learned from not only my teaching experiences, but from my interactions with many esteemed colleagues and my own research. My overarching goal was to take the reader equipped with a basic foundation in radar, electromagnetics, and signal processing from basic adaptive array principles to the state-of-the-art in STAP algorithm design.
Echoing in my psyche during the creation of this treatment was the often-cited student goal: “How do I make STAP work in the real world?” The source of such pleas was often the disappointing results achieved when STAP methods were blindly applied to challenging—albeit realistic—interference environments. A forensic analysis of such results invariably revealed that the root cause of failure was an extreme oversimplification of the nature of the underlying interference.
For example, in the derivation of the optimum space-time beamformer, stationarity assumptions are imposed that are generally not met in practice (except, of course, in highly contrived scenarios—e.g., a flat uninhabited desert). Thus, after establishing basic 1st order space-time models for clutter and jamming in Chapter 3, many important 2nd and higher order effects are detailed in Chapter 4 before introducing modern STAP algorithms in Chapter 5. The obvious reason for this is simply that many algorithms perform very well on 1st order models, but can produce disappointing results when higher fidelity models and/or real data is employed. This effect is exacerbated as the strength of the interference increases—precisely the situation one wants to remedy with STAP!
At the time first edition of this book was written, the only books available devoted to STAP for radar were by Klemm. I have copies of both and refer to them often (as evidenced throughout this book). However, these are advanced treatments and thus are not readily accessible to the newly initiated. Moreover, due to their enormous breadth of coverage, particular topics are not always explored in great depth. Thus, to even come close to accomplishing my aforementioned objectives in a single source, sacrifices in breadth had to be made. For example, I have chosen not to explicitly cover bistatic STAP or newly emerging application areas in synthetic aperture radar (SAR)—topics that are covered in. However, many of the robust STAP algorithms developed in Chapter 5 are applicable to these more advanced applications. Indeed, it is my hope that after completing Chapter 5, the motivated reader could simply learn the particulars of another application, and then readily adopt a suitable STAP algorithm from their toolkit.
I have been extremely fortunate to have had first-hand interactions and collaborations with some of the founding fathers of both the theory of STAP, Professors Irving S. Reed and Dante C. Youla, who derived the multichannel Wiener-Hopf equations in continuous form in 1959! and its practical implementation (e.g., Marshall Greenspan). Their alacrity and clarity are truly inspirational. Other colleagues with which it has been my privilege to collaborate include E. H. Feria, S. U. Pillai, A. O. Steinhardt, J. S. Goldstein, P. M. Techau, and J. S. Bergin (both of whom were students of Harry Van Trees and were acknowledged in his recent array processing book).
Lee Moyer (RPN rules!), Jamie Bergin, and Paul Techau provided substantial feedback on earlier drafts of this book, and I greatly acknowledge their support. Also, the anonymous reviewer for Artech House provided many excellent suggestions for improving the technical presentation. I’d also like to acknowledge the gentle yet firm encouragement and assistance of my editor, Ms. Barbara Lovenvirth of Artech House.
STAP is a vast field and I have benefited over the years from so many generous colleagues that have also directly and/or indirectly influenced the material in this book. I cannot not possibly mention them all, but feel especially compelled to mention M. Zatman, M. Wicks, P. Zulch, E. Baranoski, J. Ward, A. Farina, and J. Carlini.
Preface to the Second Edition
Since the publication of the first edition over ten years ago, there has been a great deal of new adaptive radar developments, including multi-input/multioutput (MIMO), knowledge-aided (KA) processing, adaptive waveform and transmit techniques (i.e., fully adaptive radar), and the newly-emerging field of cognitive radar. As a consequence, two new chapters have been added to this second edition to provide firm foundation of STAP on transmit techniques and applications, along with the latest in knowledge-aided (KA) methods and architectures. Thus, when taken in its entirety, Space Time Adaptive Processing for Radar, Second Edition provides the necessary tools for the practicing engineer and researcher engaged in the latest state-of-the-art radar developments.
Lastly, problem sets have been introduced at the end of each chapter to facilitate the adoption of this book in more formal coursework, as well as to provide additional stimulation of problems outside those specifically addressed within the chapters.
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