The cellular wireless generation (G) commonly implies a change in the characteristics of the system such as data speed, access or transmission technology, and operating frequency bands. Each generation has particular standards, capabilities, and technologies, with new architectures that differentiate it from the previous one. Out of the four generations of cellular wireless communication, the 2G network has been the most profitable, with the longest life cycle. 3G network has possibly been less successful than 4G networks.
Not counting the analogue 1G network, new wireless generations are designed to offer a higher speed and amount of data transportation, along with new features and services. The amount of data transported by wireless networks is expected to approach 500 EBs by 2020, compared to 3 exabytes (EBs) in 2010, (1 EB = 1 billion gigabytes).The growth of data is mainly driven by devices such as smart phones, tablets, and video streaming. In addition, the number of connected devices and data rates will continue to increase exponentially. Consequently, it was clear to researchers and industry that an incremental approach to system improvements to these challenges would not achieve its targets by 2020. There were enormous calls on academia and industry to meet these challenges through innovative new technologies that are practical, smart, and efficient.
The 3GPP has led the campaign for long-term evolution (LTE) of wireless communications, and 3GPP recommendations are arranged in Releases. Release 14 was published in 2017; Release 15 came out at the end of 2018, and Release 16 is due at the end of 2019. Releases 14 and 15 concur with 5G trial service tests and 5G commercial service enrolled in 2020.
5G wireless communications technology comprises economic growth and industrial revolution. 5G will be the backbone of the Internet of Things (IoT), connecting devices, machines, and vehicles. Contemporary wireless networks must be upgraded to the new architectures to implement new technologies. New hardware must be employed to make this revolution possible. Public administrations have to engage with their citizens to build new smart communities and cities. Mobile service providers are required to upgrade to give their subscribers the new experience. 5G also enables the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), like monitoring devices and wearable equipment for patients suffering from serious health issues, collaborative cancer cloud platforms to fine-tune cancer therapies, and remote surgery. 5G enables smart grids linking all the national power generation, transmission, and distribution resources and management systems. All these applications and many more need knowledge and understanding of the elements and functioning of 5G.
Therefore, design engineers and service providers should update their knowledge about the new wireless systems to make this change happen. Universities are obliged to update their engineering courses to provide trained engineers. Knowledge updating through training to provide skills and well-written technology books would help in this quest. As a matter of fact, many books could be written to explain in depth various 5G technologies, and there are many excellent books on the market now. However, there are also gaps where technologies are either not explained in depth or not discussed at all. The book attempts to fill in some of these gaps and to develop these technologies in depth for the readers’ benefit.
The book is aimed at engineers working in industrial design and research and development (R&D), private–public research communities, university academics involved in research, and postgraduate courses (PhD and MSc), including senior engineering degree courses, technical managers, and service providers. Readers should have a degree in electronics or communications.
A key prerequisite in all written engineering books is mathematics. Support on advanced mathematics used is provided in the book as appendices. The proposed book deals with 5G advanced technologies that are key to anyone involved with the physical (PHY) layer topics, such as enabling technologies, full-duplex communications, full-dimension beamforming, massive MIMO channel estimation, multi-user precoding, and many more.
Structure of the Book
Chapter 1: Introduction
The chapter begins with a brief review of the contemporary cellular networks, examining their pros and cons in terms of future demands for mobile services. The 3GPP-led long-term evolution of wireless communications signifies the beginning for a new, complete system of technologies from 4G to 5G. Since technologies dominate the generations of wireless networks, it was compelling to investigate how these enchanting, ingenious technologies could be implemented in the physical layer of multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems working in non-ideal environments. In fact, 5G is more than just a mobile communications network. It will have an astounding impact on our society, economy, and almost every aspect of daily life. The massive MIMO system, high speed of data delivery, and increased coverage expected from the 5G are not the only advantages over the 4G. Low latency also provides the possibility of nearly immediate wireless connection in real time. The 5G low latency can provide connections to enormous numbers of IoT smart objects. The chapter provides an overview of the important merits of the contemporary networks, including the capacity regions of the MIMO BC and MIMO MAC systems, the characteristics of the fading wireless channels and the multicell MIMO channels. The intensive concerns for the environment and the impacts of global warming on the climate necessitate appropriate green communications for the twenty-first century and are examined in the chapter. A model for the wireless network power consumption is provided, and it turns out that most power consumption is due to the base stations (BSs). The green cellular mobile communication scenarios are presented in detail. The chapter concludes with a short summary, a list of selected up-to-date references, and a tutorial on the theory and techniques of optimization mathematics.
Chapter 2: 5G Enabling Technologies: Small Cells, Full-Duplex Communications, and Full-Dimension MIMO Technologies
The chapter comprises three important technologies that have tremendous dominance in 5G. The large number of small cells employed in a 5G network was identified as network densification. The analysis and evaluation of network densifications and HetNet model are addressed comprehensively. The traditional RAN is too expensive to deploy in future wireless generations. The cloud-based RAN architecture includes: resource management between macrocells and small cells and mobile small cells is analysed in detail. The cache-enabled small cell is examined, in particular, for file delivery performance and outage probability. The full-duplex (FD) mobile communications implied that a transceiver unit can transmit and receive data simultaneously. The FD technology for 5G is analysed and evaluated, and a complete FD infrastructure design is presented. The full-dimension MIMO technology exploits the 2D active antenna arrays and considers the energy propagation in both vertical and horizontal directions and they are thoroughly analysed and evaluated. Key design parameters are identified and debated elaborately. Additionally, the chapter overviews the current and future reference signals, antenna ports, and physical communications channels. The chapter concludes with a short summary, a list of selected novel references, and appendices.
Chapter 3: 5G Enabling Technologies: Network Virtualization and Wireless Energy Harvesting
The chapter presents two important technologies: network virtualization and wireless energy harvesting. Virtualization is a duplication of a hardware platform using software in such a way that all functionalities are reproduced as ‘virtual instance’ and are operating similar to the traditional hardware elements. In practice, network virtualization has produced overlay networks on top of the physical hardware. Virtualized infrastructure of wireless network reduces the CAPEX and the OPEX. Virtualization is extended beyond the physical layer to include layer 2 and layer 3 (switching and routing) and includes a transport layer as well. Network functions virtualization (NFV) aspires solutions to the NFV infrastructure to build up many network equipment types onto industry-standard virtual devices. Virtual technology devices comprise vRAN, EPC, vswitch, etc. The wireless powered communication is key to the future generation. It uses a harvested energy to transmit/decode information to/from other devices and currently has many applications in IoT systems, large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for environment monitoring, smart power grid, and wireless powered mobile devices. mmWave networks have two major attractions for wireless energy harvesting, namely: massive number of antennas and highly dense BSs deployments. The chapter ends with a short summary and a list of selected up-to-date references.
Chapter 4: 5G Enabling Technologies: Narrowband Internet of Things and Smart Cities
Internet of Things (IoT) is a networking technology of a large number of conventional physical objects turned into smart devices with limited bandwidth (BW), power, and processing capabilities. IoT devices intelligently communicate using IP and are operated without the help of human beings. IoT devices exist in buildings, vehicles, and the environment. The IoT architecture moved on to the narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) which is a category of IoT that is introduced by 3GPP employing a small portion (180 kHz for DL and UL) of LTE BW to provide connectivity to the IoT devices. The analysis and evaluation of NB-IoT is presented in the chapter.
Smart city is an urban community that uses modern information and communication technology to collect information to manage available assets and resources efficiently. The analysed information can be used, for example, to monitor and manage services and to provide a better life for its citizens.
The EU smart city model is used to deal with basic requirements for smart cities. The EU model is based on the city performance in six key fields of urban development: smart economy; smart mobility; smart environment; smart people; smart living; and smart governance. It is important to note that currently there are no global standards to qualify a city to be smart. The chapter concludes with a short summary, a list of selected up-to-date references, and an appendix.
Chapter 5: Millimeter Wave Massive MIMO technology
The chapter deals with the mmWave massive MIMO, which can be the key 5G technology. The main issues of concern are broadcast channel BC estimation and the mmWave beamforming systems. The first is investigated by the reciprocity technique in a time-division duplex (TDD) network operated protocol. The concept of channel reciprocity implies that the downlink (DL) can be the reciprocal of the estimated uplink (UL). While propagation UL and DL are reciprocal, a practical reciprocity model is much more complicated since the transceivers at both BS and the terminals may not provide reciprocal UL and DL. The chapter analyses this problem in great depth. The beamforming issue is presented, including the concept of hybrid digital and analogue beamforming for mm wave antenna arrays. In addition, the chapter examines the mmWave market and the choice of technologies that can be used and the massive MIMO hardware requirement. The chapter addresses the pros and cons of the contemporary technologies and the pros and cons of the conventional MIMO beamforming schemes. The chapter concludes with a short summary, a list of selected up-to-date references, and appendices.
Chapter 6: mmWave Propagation Modelling: Atmospheric Gaseous and Rain Losses
The chapter deals with two important topics related to mmWave propagation, namely: atmospheric gaseous losses and rain losses. The atmospheric gases include two main gases that account for 99% of the atmospheric gases, namely: oxygen 21% and nitrogen 78%. The remaining (1%) includes water vapour, carbon dioxide (0.037%), and organ (0.9%) and other rare gases. The issue here is how much attenuation these gases inflect on the mmWave transmission. As it appears, the attenuation is caused primarily by oxygen and water vapour molecules. The chapter continues this subject through published research and inclusion of the ITU recommended model. The chapter deals with rain attenuation at mmWave bands with a brief survey of the research development in the field and focuses on the physical rain Capasoni model and the ITU recommended rainfall rate conversion model. Furthermore, the losses by snow and hail are investigated by assessing the physical parameters of an ice slab and by applying the strong fluctuation theory. The chapter concludes with a short summary, a list of selected novel references, and an appendix.
Chapter 7: mmWave Propagation Modelling –Weather, Vegetation, and Building Material Losses
The chapter deals with three topics: weather; vegetation, and building materials, and examines their losses contribution at mmWave propagation. The chapter investigates the clouds and fogs and derives a microphysical model for the representation of rain droplets size distribution, taking in the Rayleigh and Mie scattering distributions and the loss calculation based on the water content. The ITU model for clouds and fog attenuation calculation is described in depth. The attenuation of propagated radio waves in vegetation can be important for low transmit power mobile communications devices, such as those proposed for use in 5G. Attention is given to attenuation in vegetation due to diffraction (top diffraction, side diffraction, ground reflection, and the scattering components). The propagation losses due to various building materials for indoors and the exterior of the house are analysed and evaluated in detail. The chapter closes with a short summary, a list of selected up-to-date references, and appendices.
Chapter 8: Wireless Channel Modelling and Array Mutual Coupling
Massive MIMO channel models considered with correlation inspired models are of two types: models correlated at one end of the link and are appropriate when dealing with single antenna mobile terminals known as Kronecker channel models. The other type of models consider the correlation at both ends of the link jointly and are suitable when dealing with multi antennas mobile terminals known as Weichselberger channel models. The chapter considers both types of correlation inspired models in considerable detail. In addition, considerations are given to the virtual channel representation and the i.i.d Rayleigh channel model. Furthermore, the chapter deals with the mutual coupling in massive MIMO antenna arrays at the BS when arrays operating in transmit and receive modes and the mutually coupled arrays channel capacity. The chapter also provides an overview of contemporary wireless channel fading and statistics. The chapter concludes with a brief summary, a list of novel references, and appendices.
Chapter 9: Massive Array Configurations and 3D Channel Modelling
The chapter deals with two important topics: future massive MIMO array configurations and the 3D channel modelling. The mmWave massive array configuration is likely to be spherical arrays comprised of a large number of radiating elements placed on a spherical surface. For a given beam direction, a sector of the array is excited and the spherical arrays are highly symmetrical devices. The symmetry is also applied to the array elements. mmWave array package with beam-steering capability for the 5Gmobile terminal applications was proposed in the literature. Depending on the operating frequency, microstrip patch antennas can also be considered. The chapter considers the array configurations thoroughly. The 3D channel models recommended in 3GPP Release 14 included generating the 3D channel model coefficients based on measured channel was used to model buildings and presented in detail. The chapter concludes with a brief summary, a list of selected novel references, and appendices.
Chapter 10: Massive MIMO Channel Estimation Schemes
Massive MIMO channels estimation in noncooperative TDD networks with time-shifted pilot scheme and channel estimation using coordinated cells in MIMO system using Bayesian estimation method are analysed and evaluated in the chapter. The chapter also examines arbitrary correlated Rician fading channel estimating, using MMSE approach in great detail. The massive MIMO channel calibration is presented in the chapter through two methods, namely the Argos method, which works on a sample basis, and the mutual coupling method, which uses the coupling as a basis to derive the calibration approach. The pre- or post-precoding channel calibration is debated in this chapter as well. The chapter concludes with a short summary, a list of selected up-to-date references, and appendices.
Chapter 11: Linear Precoding Strategies for Multi-user Massive MIMO Systems
SU-MIMO precoding based on The SVD of the channel matrix H is considered in the chapter. The channel inversion precoding at the transmitter for BC is analysed and evaluated. Linear ZF precoding for the BC with transmit power constraint based on the Wiesel et al. method is examined thoroughly in the chapter. An important issue related to the outage probability of the channel is considered in depth. The precoding for MIMO channel using transmit filter matrices at the transmit and receive end of the link based on Joham et al. method is considered in the chapter. The ZF, MF, WF are derived in the chapter. An unequal power allocation to the user terminals is derived for ZF precoding scheme. The advantages and the design of regularized ZF design are examined in the chapter. Multi-user BD precoding suitable for users’ terminal, each with multiple antennas, is analysed extensively. Massive matrix inversion in linear precoding design is a high complexity process. The chapter explores the replacement of the large matrix inversion with polynomial expansion based on the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Furthermore, it is possible to truncate the polynomial to limited numbers of terms. The chapter deals with the truncated polynomial expansion precoding providing analysis and evaluation of the TPE for multi-user applications. The chapter ends with a short summary, a list of selected up-to-date references, and appendices.
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