5G Physical Layer – Principles, Models and Technology Components

5G Physical Layer – Principles, Models and Technology Components

中文译名:5G NR物理层技术详解:原理、模型和组件

本书详细阐述了5G NR新空口无线接入技术—5G NR物理层的基本设计原理、模型和组件。书中物理层模型包括仿真5G NR(最高到100 GHz)全频段范围内的无线电波传播和硬件损伤;书中各种物理层技术包括灵活的多载波波形、先进的多天线技术和信道编码机制,它们都为5G及其后续演进的商用部署、服务和频率拓展提供技术解决方案;书中还包括一个基于MATLAB的链路级仿真器,用于探索各种研发设计选项。

本书非常适合无线通信系统的研究和开发设计人员以及大学相关专业的学生阅读:假定对通信理论和信号处理具备基本的了解,但不要求熟悉4G和5G标准。

通过本书,读者将学习到:

  • 5G NR物理层的基本原理(波形、编码调制、参数集、信道仿真和多天线方案)
  • 5G NR标准采用特定物理层技术的原因
  • 无线电波传播和硬件损伤造成的基本物理限制
  • 如何实现5G NR物理层的基本功能(例如参数、方法和机制)

主要内容包括:

  • 5G发展的全景视图—概念、标准化、频谱分配、用例和要求、外场试验以及商用部署
  • 3GPP中5G NR物理层技术规范背后的基本原理
  • 5G及其后续演进的无线电波传播和信道建模
  • 未来基站和终端的硬件损伤建模
  • 5G及其后续演进的灵活多载波波形、多天线方案和信道编码机制
  • 仿真器,包括硬件损伤、无线电波传播和各种波形

This book is written for researchers and system designers in the field of mobile radio communication, interested in understanding principles, models, and technology components for the 5G NR physical layer. Although the focus is on 5G NR, many concepts presented in the book are of a fundamental nature and are applicable beyond 5G. We assume that the reader has a basic understanding of digital wireless communications and signal processing; however, familiarity with cellular technologies (for example, 4G LTE standard) is not required. We will introduce relevant standard related concepts and terminologies in the book.

The book is composed of nine chapters covering various aspects of 5G NR—a global picture of its development, the physical layer overview based on the first 5G NR release in 3GPP, the physical limitations imposed by radio wave propagation and hardware impairments, the key physical layer technologies, and an open-source link-level simulator. In the following, we briefly outline the content of each chapter.

Chapter 1 introduces 5G NR and discusses global efforts in the development of 5G NR and its future impact on industry and society. We provide a holistic view on 5G use cases and their requirements, spectrum allocations, standardization, field trials, and future commercial deployments.

Chapter 2 provides an overview of the 5G NR physical layer based on the first 3GPP NR release. We will see that the physical layer components of NR are flexible, ultra-lean and forward-compatible. Moreover, we provide an overview of radio wave propagation and hardware impairment related challenges associated with enabling a high performing NR.

Chapter 3 presents state-of-the-art insights on radio wave propagation along with description of fundamental concepts and propagation characteristics. We focus on the frequency dependency of the channel properties for the full range of frequencies envisioned for 5G NR, with experimental examples. The channel modeling for 5G NR is discussed. Moreover, we point out both validated and non-validated (or deficient) aspects of the current 5G channel models defined by 3GPP and ITU-R.

Chapter 4 covers some of the traditional behavioral models for power amplifiers, local oscillators and data converters. These models may accurately predict the input–output relation of analog and mixed-signal components. Furthermore, a novel modeling approach is presented that provides the second order statistics of the errors caused by non-ideal components. This stochastic modeling framework provides a powerful tool for link-level evaluations and aids in making sound choices in terms of the radio performance versus energy efficiency trade-offs.

Chapter 5 presents state-of-the art multicarrier waveforms. Based on the design requirements for NR, the chapter provides an overall waveform comparison that has led to the down selection of CPOFDM waveform for 5G NR. The multicarrier waveforms are compared as regards a number of key performance indicators: phase-noise robustness, baseband complexity, frequency localization, time localization, robustness to power amplifier nonlinearities, channel time selectivity and channel frequency selectivity.

Chapter 6 presents a flexible OFDM for 5G NR. Different factors involved in the implementation of OFDM-based NR modems are discussed, for example, quality of service requirements, type of deployment, carrier frequency, user mobility, hardware impairments, and implementation aspects. This chapter puts special focus on high carrier frequencies (e.g., millimeter-wave band), where robustness to hardware impairments (phase noise, synchronization errors) and power efficiency of the waveform is crucial.

Chapter 7 discusses the role of multiantenna techniques in 5G NR and the features included in the first release of the NR specifications. To provide an understanding and motivation of the features adopted by NR, the fundamental theory behind these features is provided. The viability of the multiantenna techniques presented is illustrated by several experimental examples.

Chapter 8 presents different channel coding schemes for 5G NR. The performance of the coding schemes is evaluated for different blocklength values. We review recently developed information-theoretic tools to benchmark the performance of these coding schemes. Looking beyond what is currently standardized in NR, we consider transmissions over multiantenna fading channels and highlight the importance of exploiting frequency and spatial diversity through the use of space-frequency codes, in applications that require high reliability.

Chapter 9 presents an open-source simulator that includes hardware impairment models (power amplifier, oscillator phase noise), a geometry-based stochastic channel model, and modulation/demodulation modules of state-of-the art waveforms. The chapter provides simulation exercises with various waveforms subject to different types of impairments.

Ali Zaidi
Fredrik Athley
Jonas Medbo
Ulf Gustavsson
Giuseppe Durisi
Xiaoming Chen

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